Developing A New One-Dimensional Scale to Measure Pain in Children: Pencil Pain ScaleName : Dr. Emine Beyaz
Affliation : Research Assistant
University : Mus Alparslan University
Country : Turkey
Introduction: Due to the developmental characteristics of children and the difficulties in assessing their pain, the diversity of standardized valid and reliable pain scales is very important. Therefore, there is a continuing search for tools that best evaluate pain in children.
Objective: To develop the Pencil Pain Scale as a new one-dimensional scale for evaluating pain in school-age children (6-12 years old). This scale is then used to assess whether the pain is reliably measured and compared with the VAS and Facial Expressions Rating Scale, one dimensional pain scales that are used extensively in familiar and pain measurement.
Materials And Methods: The descriptive and comparative study population consisted of children who were in the 6-12 year age group who referred to the blood-taking unit of the hospital between November 2017 and February 2018, and whose condition was stable and acute. The sample was incidentally made up of children (S=423) who applied to the blood collection unit three days a week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday). In the collection of data, a questionnaire that specifies the characteristics of children and parents, Pen Pain Scale, known scales; Visual Analogue Scale and Face Expression Rating Scale were used. The data obtained were analyzed by means of percentiles, mean, chi-square, t-test, ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney U test and reliability coefficient test. The study has adhered to ethical principles.
Results: The experimental and control groups were found to be similar in terms of their characteristics, parental characteristics and family characteristics. It was found that the difference between mean score of Pen Pain Scale and mean of VAS and Facial Expression Scale Scale was statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: The lack of a statistically significant difference between the mean of the Pencil Pain Scale score and the mean of the VAS and the Facial Expression Scale Scale indicates that the Pencil Pain Scale reliably measures the pain in school age children (6-12 years old). It is suggested that the Pen Pain Scale should be used in different age groups and different pain types so that it can become a standard without measuring the pain of children.
Emine Beyaz has completed her bachelor's degree in nursing at the age of 22 years from Mus Alparslan University. She is as a research assistant in Pediatric Nursing Department at Mus Alparslan University. She started to work at the age of 23 years at Mus Alparslan University. She completed her master's degree at the age of 25 at Atatürk University. and started her PhD at the age of 26 years at Atatürk University. She is currently as PhD in Pediatric Nursing Department at Atatürk University. Her study interests include newborn care, breastfeeding, pain management, adolescent mothers.